Sexually Transmitted Diseases or STD

Sexually transmitted diseases are infections that are often, if not always, passed from person to person through sexual contact. Because sexual activity provides an easy opportunity for organisms to find new hosts, a wide variety of infectious micro-organisms can be spread by sexual contact.

Most of the infectious agents that cause sexually transmitted disease are fairly easily inactivated when exposed to a harsh environment. They are thus particularly suited to transmission by contact with mucous membranes. They may be bacteria (e.g. gonococci), spirochetes (syphilis), chlamydiae (nongonococcal urethritis, cervicitis), viruses (e.g. herpes simplex, hepatitis B virus, cytomegalovirus, AIDS virus), or protozoa (e.g. Trichomonas). In most infections caused by these agents, early lessons occur on genitalia or other sexually exposed mucous membranes; however, wide desimination may occur.

Controlling sexually transmitted diseases depend on promoting safe sex practices and providing good medical facilities for diagnosis and treatment. Educating people about how to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases- especially encouraging condom use - is critical. Today treatments can rapidly cure most sexually transmitted diseases and prevent them from spreading. However, a number of new drug resistant variants of older organisms have spread widely in part because of worldwide travel, especially air travel and such mobility has been partly responsible for the rapid spread of the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV), which causes AIDS.

Except for AIDS and hepatitis B, sexually transmitted diseases can be cured or managed if they are treated early. But one, may not realise that one has an STD until it has damaged the patients reproductive system, vision, heart, or other oragans. Also, having an STD weakens the immune system and leaves one more vulnerable to other infections.

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are among the most common infectious diseases in the United States and many European & Asian countries of the world today. More than 20 different STDs have been identified. Depending on the disease, the infection can be spread through any type of sexual activity involving the sex organs or the mouth; the infection can also be spread through contact with blood during sexual activity.

  1. STDs affect men and women of all ages and backgrounds.
  2. STDs have become more common, partly because young people are becoming sexually active at a younger age and are having multiple partners.
  3. People can pass STDs to sexual partners even if they themselves do not have any symptoms.
  4. Frequently, STDs cause no symptoms, especially in women.
  5. Health problems from STDs tend to be more severe for women than for men. Some STDs can cause pelvic infections that may lead to scarring of the reproductive organs, which can result in an ectopic pregnancy (a pregnancy outside the uterus) and infertility for women.
  6. STDs in women may be related to cancer of the cervix.
  7. STDs can be passed from a mother to her baby before, during, or immediately after birth.
  8. Because the method of becoming infected is similar with all STDs, a person can easily pick up more than one infection at a time.
  9. Experts believe that having an STD that is not AIDS increases one's risk for becoming infected with AIDS.
  10. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Causes
  11. Depending on the disease, STDs can be spread with any type of sexual activity. STDs are most often caused by viruses and bacteria.
  12. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Symptoms
  13. Common STDs have a variety of symptoms (if symptoms develop at all) and many different complications, including death.

Chlamydia

Hepatitis (A, B, C, D)

Gonorrhea

Syphilis

Chancroid

HIV/AIDS

Genital warts

Pubic lice

Scabies

When to Seek Medical Care

A medical examination may be necessary if a person believes he or she may have an STD or if he or she may have been exposed to someone with an STD. Being seen by a doctor as soon as possible after exposure to an STD is important; these infections can easily spread to others and can have serious complications.

Go to a hospital's emergency department in these circumstances:

Exams and Tests

Some STDs can be diagnosed without any tests at all. Other STDs require a blood test or a sample of any unusual fluid (such as an abnormal discharge from the vagina or the penis) to be analyzed in a lab to help establish a diagnosis. Some tests are completed while a person waits; other tests require a few days before a person may obtain the results.

Medical Treatment

The treatment of an STD varies depending on the type of STD. Some STDs require a person to take antibiotic medication either by mouth or by injection; other STDs require a person to apply creams or special solutions on the skin. Often, reexamination by a doctor is necessary after the treatment to confirm that the STD is completely gone.

Some STDs, such as herpes and HIV (which leads to AIDS), cannot be cured, only controlled.

Follow-up

If diagnosed with an STD, follow these guidelines:

Prevention

The best way to prevent STDs is to avoid sexual contact with others. If people decide to become sexually active, they can reduce the risk of developing an STD in these ways:

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