Selected Causes of Secondary Hypertension

Kidney disease

Renal artery stenosis

Pyelonephritis

Glomerulonephritis

Kidney tumors

Polycystic kidney disease (usually inherited)

Injury to the kidney

Radiation therapy affecting the kidney

Hormonal disorders

Hyperaldosteronism

Cushing's syndrome

Pheochromocytoma

Drugs

Oral contraceptives

Corticosteroids

Cyclosporine

Erythropoietin

Cocaine

Alcohol abuse

Licorice (excessive amounts)

Coarctation of the aorta

Pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia

Acute intermittent porphyria

Acute lead poisoning

Cholesterol and Coronary Artery Disease

The risk of coronary artery disease increases with elevated levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL cholesterol or bad cholesterol) in the blood.

The risk of coronary artery disease decreases with elevated levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol or good cholesterol).

Diet influences the total cholesterol level-and thus the risk of coronary artery disease. The typical American diet increases total cholesterol levels. Changing the diet (and taking prescribed drugs if needed) can lower cholesterol levels.

Lowering levels of total cholesterol and bad cholesterol slows or reverses the progress of coronary artery disease.

The benefits of lowering levels of bad cholesterol are greatest in patients with other risk factors of coronary artery disease. These risk factors include cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, obesity, inactivity, high triglyceride levels, a genetic predisposition, and male steroids (androgens).

Quitting smoking, lowering blood pressure, losing weight, and increasing exercise decrease the risk of coronary artery disease.

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