Personal Care

Poisoning and Its Treatment

A poison is a substance which, by its direct action on body tissues or its action after absorption into the circulation, injuriously affects health or destroys life. It has no rigid legal definition, and is accordingly referred to in law as 'a poison or other destructive or noxious thing'. Many substances in common use in the house and garden, as well as in factories, workshops, and farms, are...

Urinary Incontinence in Women

UCIM Urinary incontinence is an inability to hold your urine until you get to a toilet. More than 13 million people in the United States-male and female, young and old-experience incontinence. It is often temporary, and it always results from an underlying medical condition. (In this fact sheet, the term "incontinence" will be used to mean urinary incontinence.) Women experience incontinence twice as...

Personality Disorders

Pervasive, persistent maladaptive patterns of behavior that are deeply ingrained and that are not attributable to axis I disorder, Axis III disorder, or cultural role difficulties. Disorder of traits, rather than state. Maladaptive traits can be behavioral, emotional, cognitive, perceptual or psychodynamic. Diagnosis, Signs and Symptoms Requires history of long-term difficulties in various...

Pneumococcal Pneumonia

Essentials of Diagnosis Sudden onset of shaking chills, fever, chest pain, and cough with rust colored sputum. X-rays show infiltration, often lobar in distribution. Pneumococci are present in the sputum and often in the blood. Leukocytosis. General Considerations Pneumonia is an inflammatory process in lung parenchyma most commonly caused by infection. The consolidation of pneumonia must be...

Atelectasis Airlessness Causes Partial Lung Contraction

Atelectasis is a condition in which part of the lungs becomes airless and contracts. The main cause of atelectasis is an obstruction of a bronchus, one of the two main branches of the trachea leading directly to the lungs. Smaller airways can also become blocked. The obstruction may be caused by a plug of mucous, a tumour, or an inhaled object inside the bronchus. Or the bronchus may be blocked...

Genital Warts

Genital warts (Condylomata acuminata) affect an estimated 10 million to 20 million Americans. As many as a million people contract genital warts each year; pregnant women and people with impaired immune systems are more susceptible than is the general population to this infection. Sometimes what appear to be genital warts are merely accumulations of normal skin that have no medical significance;...

The Brain

The brain consists of five main divisions, the cerebrum or fore brain, the basal ganglia, the mid brain, the cerebellum or hind brain, and the medulla oblongata. It is covered and protected by three membranes, the meninges, which are separated by fluid. These three membranes are known as the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater. The Cerebrum is the upper and larger portion of the brain,...

Renal and Bladder Disorders

Prescribing Notes Incontinence Anticholinergic (oxybutynin, propiverine, tolterodine, trospium chloride) and antispasmodic (flavoxate) drugs may be used to treat urinary frequency, urgency and incontinence. They lower intravesicular pressure, increase capacity and reduce the frequency of bladder contraction. they block the parasympathetic nerves which control bladder voiding or exert a direct...

Unrelieved Pain

Unrelieved Pain "Pain is a major health care problem. Although acute pain may reasonably be considered a symptom of disease or injury, chronic and recurrent pain is a specific health care problem, a disease in its own right" Acute Pain is a Major Problem after Surgery and Trauma Major advances have improved management of acute pain, but more than 50% of patients still have severe to intolerable pain after...

Bad Teachers Put Students At Big Disadvantage, Study Finds

Bad Teachers Put Students At Big Disadvantage If students get a bad teacher in third grade, their test scores will still be suffering two years later, according to a new University of Tennessee study. And students who get three bad teachers in a row are at a huge disadvantage to students who get three average or highly effective teachers. "It basically says that school administrators should pay special attention in assigning students to...

Standard Handwashing Procedure with Pictures

Standard Handwashing Procedure with Pictures To wash hands properly, rub all parts of the hands and wrists with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand rub. Wash hands for at least 15 seconds or more. Pay special attention to fingertips, between fingers, backs of hands and base of the thumbs. Keep nails short Remove watches, rings and bracelets Do not use artificial nails Avoid chipped nail varnish Wash wrists and forearms if they are...

Heart Pain and Heart Attack

How is The Heart Pain? Pain due to ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is quite unique in its character, distribution and behavior. Doctors call such pain as Angina Pectoris. What is Angina Pectoris? Angina means crying and pectoris means chest. So angina pectoris means nothing but crying of the heart. If a baby does not get enough milk, he cries like that if heart does not get enough oxygen through...

Health and Hygiene

The family that is healthy gains much more enjoyment and satisfaction from life than the one in which its members are ailing, at cross purposes with one another, and ignorant of how to keep fit and sociable. The health of a community depends largely on the mothers, and to a lesser degree on the fathers, since the doctors, hospitals and various medical services deal mainly with those whose health...

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy - A Mysterious Pain Explained

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy - A Mysterious Pain Explained An otherwise healthy patient presents to the emergency department of her local hospital after falling onto her out-stretched arms. She has an obvious deformity of her wrist. The ER physician consults an Orthopedic surgeon who successfully reduces her broken wrist and places a cast over her wrist and lower arm. The patient is discharged home in good condition. Several days later she returns to...

Diarrhoea

Diarrhoea Definition: Diarrhea is defined as the passage of loose, liquid, or watery stool, usually more than three times a day and associated with dehydration. The consistency and character of stool is more important than the number of passage. Problem Statement: Acute Diarrhoea is rivaled in importance only by respiratory infections as a cause of morbidity on a worldwide scale. It is a major health...

Vertigo

Vertigo is a false sensation of moving or spinning or of objects moving or spinning, usually accompanied by nausea or lack of loss of balance. Some people use the word dizziness to describe light headedness, but only true dizziness what doctors call vertigo - causes sensation of moving or spinning. Vertigo may last for only a few moments or may continue for hours or even days. A person with...

Sports Injuries

More than 100 million sports injuries are treated each year worldwide. The principles of sports medicine can be applied to the treatment of many musculoskeletal injuries, which resemble sports injuries but have different causes. For ex-ample, tennis elbow can be caused by carrying a suitcase, turning a screw, or opening a stuck door, and runner's knee can be caused by excessive in-ward rolling of...

Tips For Parents When Talking to Their Kids About Sex

Tips For Parents When Talking to Their Kids About Sex Be clear about your own sexual values and attitudes. It will be far more difficult for you to approach the topic of sex with your child if you do not have a clear understanding of your own attitudes toward sex, love and feelings. Ask yourself the following questions: What do you really think about children and teens having sex, and putting themselves at risk for becoming parents or contracting...

Viral Infections

Viral Infections A virus is a small infectious organism–much smaller than a fungus or bacterium–that needs a living cell in order to reproduce. The virus attaches to a cell, often a specific type of cell. Once inside a cell, the virus releases its DNA or RNA (which contains the information needed to create new virus particles) and takes control of some aspects of the cell's metabolism. The components of the virus...

Different Types of Foot Problems and Prevention

Different Types of Foot Problems and Prevention Problems with the feet can be very painful. You feel it in every step and can occur when you least expect it. The most common problem is hard skin or callus. This will occur over those area which take the most pressure which can lead to corn formation. Fungal infections are very irritating and will effect many people at sometime in their lives - and it doesn't just affect athletes, although the...