Disease and Treatment

Symptoms of Hiatal Hernia

Hernia The majority of people who have hiatal hernias don't even realize it. Those who do know typically find out when visiting a doctor because of chronic heartburn. Symptoms may include the following: heartburn; regurgitation. difficulty swallowing. chest pain radiating from below the breastbone (the sternum). a bloated feeling after eating. shortness of breath. Call Your Doctor If: Radiating chest...

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus an Auto-immune Disease

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus An Auto-immune Disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (lupus) is an auto-immune disease that results in episodes of inflammation in joints, tendons, and other connective tissues and organs. Different tissues and organs become inflamed in different people, and the severity of the disease ranges from mild to debilitating, depending on the number and variety of antibodies that appear and the organs affected. About 90 per...

Guillain-Barré Syndrome

What is Guillain-Barré Syndrome? Guillain-Barré (ghee-yan bah-ray) syndrome is a disorder in which the body's immune system attacks part of the peripheral nervous system. The first symptoms of this disorder include varying degrees of weakness or tingling sensations in the legs. In many instances, the weakness and abnormal sensations spread to the arms and upper body. These symptoms can increase...

Antihypertensives Prescribing Notes

Antihypertensives Prescribing Notes Lowering of even mildly or moderately elevated blood pressure significantly reduces cardiovascular morbidity. Assessment Blood Pressure : The British Hypertension Society recommends that all adults should have their blood pressure measured at least every 5 years until the age of 80. Those with high normal values (135-139 over 85-89) or a history of high readings should be remeasured annually....

Antibiotics to treat Pneumonia

MRC scientists have recently discovered that a significant proportion of pneumonia in children is not caused by a virus, but by a bacterium - the pneumococcus. This has important implications for the treatment of children. World Health Organisation statistics state pneumonia as the leading cause of death in children worldwide. Almost four million children die of the disease each year - most of...

Appendicitis

Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix, a 3½ -inch-long tube of tissue that ex-tends from the large intestine. The appendix contains lymphoid tissue and may produce antibodies; however, no one is absolutely certain what its function is. One thing we do know: We can live without it, without apparent consequences. Appendicitis is a medical emergency that requires prompt surgery to remove...

Complications of Otitis Media

A complication of otitis media is defined as a spread of infection beyond the pneumatized area of the temporal bone and the associated mucosa. Complications can be classified as intratemporal or intracranial. Intratemporal complications include mastoiditis, petrositis, labyrinthitis, and facial nerve paralysis. Intracranial complications include extradural abscess, brain abscess, subdural abscess...

Inflammation of the Heart (Carditis)

Rheumatic Infection of the Heart in Childhood Inflammation, usually of rheumatic origin, affects any or all of the three main parts of the heart - the inner lining or endocardium, the main muscle of the heart chambers or myocardium, and the outer sac or pericardium, which covers the heart. Rheumatic infection is the direct cause of many cases of heart disease under the age of 40. In adult life a...

Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections

In healthy people, urine in the bladder is sterile; no bacteria or other infectious organisms are present. The urethra, the channel that carries urine from the bladder out of the body, contains either no infectious organisms or too few to cause infection. However, any part of the urinary tract can become infected. These infections are usually classified as lower or upper urinary tract infections...

Immunization

Why it is important to share and act on information about Immunization Each year, 1.7 million children die from diseases that could have been prevented with readily available vaccines. Children who are immunized are protected from these dangerous diseases, which often lead to disability or death. A11 children have the right to this protection. Every girl and boy needs to be immunized. And...

Malaria

Malaria Malaria is an infectious disease transmitted by mosquitoes. Worldwide, about 300 million to 500 million people get malaria each year, including about 1,000 people in the United States-all but a handful of whom contract the disease abroad. Almost all tropical and subtropical countries have malaria-transmitting mosquitoes. Early symptoms of malaria include headache, fatigue, low-grade fever, and...

Osteomyelitis of the Jaws

Osteomyelitis can affect either of a patient's jaws, usually the lower one, and can take various forms: Osteomyelitis complicating an infected tooth socket in an adult is more common in the mandible. Suspect it if he has pain, swelling, tenderness, trismus, and fever after he has had an infected tooth removed (sometimes months before), or an alveolar abscess drained. If his osteomyelitis becomes...

Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disease in which the large intestine becomes inflamed and ulcerated, leading to episodes of bloody diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, and fever. Ulcerative colitis may start at any age but usually begins between ages 15 and 30. A small group of people have their first attack between ages 50 and 70. Unlike Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis usually doe not affect the...

Temoromandibular Joint Syndrome

The fact that humans need to speak and eat makes the jawbone one of our busiest moving parts. The twin joints that connect the lower jaw, or mandible, to the temporal bones of the skull are relatively simple hinges with small disks of cartilage to protect the bony surfaces that rub against each other. The jawbreaking term for pain or discomfort in this area is temporomandibular joint (TMJ)...

Injury Prevention

Why it is important to share and act on information about Injury Prevention Every year, 750,000 children die from injuries. Another 400 million are seriously hurt. Many injuries lead to permanent disability and brain damage. Injuries are a major cause of death and disability among young children. The most common injuries are falls, burns, drowning and road acci-dents. Most of these injuries...

Pulmonary Embolism

An embolus is usually a blood clot (thrombus), but may also be fat, amniotic fluid, bone marrow, a tumourfragment, or an airbubble that travels through the bloodstream until it blocks a blood vessel. Pulmonary embolism is the sudden blocking of an artery of the lung (pulmonary artery) by an embolus. Usually, unobstructed arteries can send enough blood to the affected part of the lung to prevent...

Medicines for Asthma

Medicines of Asthma What are the medicines used to treat asthma? There are basically three kinds of medicines: Relievers (Bronchodilators) are medicines that relax smooth muscles that have tightened around the airways. They relieve asthma symptoms. Short acting b2-agonists, short acting aminophylline, and ipratropium are bronchodilators or relievers. Preventers (Anti-inflammatory medicines) are medicines that...

Classification of Asthma

Classification of Asthma Why do we classify asthma? We classify asthma for the purpose of precise and efficient management. Aim of our management is not merely control of symptoms, but control of inflammation, since more inflammation in the airways is associated with more manifestation of disease, which demands more drugs to be prescribed. How can we classify asthma? A new classification is given by the Expert Panel-2...

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

For over hundreds of years the use of increased atmosphere pressure and higher oxygen concentration for what has intrigued many scientists, physicians and people at large. In 1662, Henshaw built the first sealed chamber with compressed air with 21% oxygen. It was used to treat different illnesses such as inflammation, scurvy, arthritis and rickets. Others used similar chambers or rooms to treat...

Brain Disorders and Nutrition

Stroke Each year more than 5 million people worldwide suffer strokes and over 100,000 lives are claimed. The death rate for strokes has been cut down to less than half of what was fifty years ago, thanks largely to a better understanding of the underlying causes, especially the key risk factors, such as high blood pressure, heart disease, arteriosclerosis and diabetes. A number of unhealthy...