Bones and Joints Related Q & A

Bones and Joints Related Q & A

How Glucosamine And Chondroitin Help Joint Pain? Are These Supplements Approved By Fda As Prescription Drugs?

Glucosamine and chondroitin are normal constituents of cartilage and is therefore intrinsic component in all-joint surfaces. Capsules containing these bio-products have been shown in some small clinical studies to be absorbed variably from the intestine and subsequently incorporated into the cartilage matrix and help to counter the problems of arthritis; some studies have indicated that they may have a moderate analgesic properties. The evidence favouring glucosamine is found in human and animal subjects whereas that for chondroitin is limited to animal studies only. Glucosamine facilitates cartilage production and chondroitin decreases cartilage destruction. In USA, both these products are FDA approved and sold as health supplements and thus do not require a prescription.

What is The Role of Antioxidants in the Diseases of Bones and Joints? What Are The Useful Bioflavonoids?

Antioxidants help to reduce the damage to joint surfaces that occur as a result of reactive radicals that may accumulate. Examples include Vitamin C and E. Supplements can be taken if an individual's diet is restricted e.g. vegetarians. Overdosing is less likely with water-soluble Vitamin C, but more likely with fat-soluble Vitamin E. Bioflavonoids (syn Vitamin P), refers to pigments from fruits and vegetables with a beneficial biological activity. They have similar anti-oxidant action.

What is The Cause of Tenosinuvitis? How Could It Be Managed?

Tenosynovitis refers to inflammation occurring in the lining (called tenosynovium i.e. tendon sheath), which surrounds tendons. It is usually caused by either an overuse phenomenon or an infective process. By far, the overuse phenomenon is the commonest cause and an example would be De Quervains' tenosynovitis where the patients complains of pain along the outer border of the wrist and this typically occurs with activity such as wringing the clothes.

It is Said Magnets Stop Pain, Ease Arthritis, Help Heal Broken Bones. How True Is This Statement?

Hippocrates first suggested the use of magnets, and he said that they maybe used to "attract" the diseases out of the body. It has been proposed that magnets may help to re-align the ions within and around cells; this has been proposed to enhance favorable cellular biology. There is no evidence in the literature to support this type of treatment.

What are The RICE Procedures? How Helpful Are These in Primary Care Of Fractures?

RICE stands for Rest, Ice therapy, Compression and Elevation. This is usually carried out for the management of ankle sprains and other common sports injuries. Though it can be applied in fracture treatment to reduce soft tissue swelling, one usually needs to combine with an appropriate form of splintage.

How Fractured Bones Heal?

Following a fracture, the site becomes bridged by a haematoma i.e. blood clot. There is subsequently an influx of blood vessels, which populate the clot. This helps to bring in blood cells, which then change in structure to become osteocytes i.e. bone-forming cells. Initially bone gets laid down haphazardly and is called woven bone. Subsequently over a period of months it becomes organized to become the strong lamellar bone.

What is Compartment Syndrome? How It Happens?

Compartment syndrome refers to a condition precipitated by trauma, and is characterized by an abnormally high pressure within a closed cavity containing various musculature. It uniquely occurs in certain sites where muscles are held together in a closed cavity by a durable lining called fascia. Commonly it occurs in the lower leg, forearm, hand and foot. The high intra-compartment pressure can compromise the function of the neurovascular structure within the compartment.

What is a Fracture? Are There Several Types of Fractures?

Fracture refers to any break in the bone. Depending on the age of the patient, energy of injury and skin status, and various classifications exits. For example, fracture affecting the growing end of the bones in children is called physeal fractures.

When the bones are exposed to the outside environment due to a skin breach they are called open fractures. Incomplete fractures in growing bones are called "greenstick fractures". Pathological fracture is a break through an abnormal or diseased bone.

What are The Management for Hip Fracture in Elderly Patients?

The management is dependent on the level of the hip fracture and the age of the patient since successful outcome is dependent on the preservation of femoral head blood supply. In all biologically young patients with any type of hip fracture the initial plan would be to fix the fracture using a combination of plate and screws.

In the physiologically older patients if the fracture is a low type (called basocervical fracture), there may be a possibility of femoral head's blood supply being intact and fixation maybe therefore be attempted. In all older patients with a high neck of femur fractures, hemi-arthroplasty would be the best choice. There is increasing evidence that Total Hip Replacement may have an important role in the management of such patients.

What are The Cancerous Bone Tumors?

Cancerous bone tumors refers to conditions affecting the bone which have an unlimited growth potential and risk of traveling via blood stream and also expressing such a potential at the distant sites i.e. metastases. The commonest bone tumors are called osteosarcomas and chondrosarcomas.

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